It is white crystals or powder with a peppery odor. The molecular formula is C10H5ClN2, the relative molecular mass is 188.62, the melting point is 95.2 to 95.8°C, the boiling point is 310°C, the relative density is 1.389 (25°C), and the vapor pressure is 3*10-5mmHg. It is soluble in water, dichloromethane, and acetone. It is flammable with unstable combustion, can react with strong oxidants, and release hydrogen chloride, nitrogen oxides, and cyanide when heated. The cs irritant powder was originally used as an incapacitating agent as a military poison, which can be diffused by aerosol through incendiary bombs and firearms.
(1) Appropriate respiratory protection must be provided when entering the site, and air respirators must be used. Immediately remove the poisoned person from the scene to places with fresh air to inhale oxygen. Remove contaminated clothing, and at the same time rinse the skin with plenty of water, and wash gently with soap and water. Avoid inducing vomiting (due to chemical corrosion damage to the mucous membranes of the throat and esophagus, or reflux into the lungs, making treatment difficult). If the patient is conscious without convulsions, dilute the compound concentration orally with 1 to 2 glasses of water. According to experience of Tear gas manufacturer, the comatose person cannot eat anything, keep the airway open and lie on the side of the bed. If breathing and heartbeat stop, immediately perform cardiac, pulmonary, and cerebral resuscitation.
(2) Immediately use the antidote isoamyl nitrite, sodium thiosulfate, 4-DMAP (10% 4-dimethylaminoethanol).
(3) Symptomatic and supportive treatment: monitoring of cardiopulmonary function, timely treatment of pulmonary edema and cerebral edema. If condition permits, hyperbaric oxygen therapy can be used, and eye and skin burns can be treated concerning the principles of the occupational eye and skin burns.
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