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What Are the Pharmacological Effects of Piperine?

Pepper is the most basic ingredient in Indian medicine and is used to treat many diseases. Pharmacological studies have proved many of their traditional medicinal effects such as: analgesic and antipyretic effects, antioxidant effects, antibacterial effects, etc. Piperine is an effective ingredient of pepper. Piperine has a wide range of pharmacological effects, and has been found to have anti-oxidation, immune regulation, and anti-tumor effects.

1. The anti-tumor effect of pure piperine

There are many reports on the anti-tumor effects of piperine. Studies have found that piperine can inhibit melanoma-induced lung metastasis, significantly reduce tumor formation, and prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mice. This shows that pure piperine has the effect of anti-tumor metastasis. Studies have found that oral piperine can significantly reduce the lipid peroxidation level, nucleotide content and polyamine synthesis in mice with benzopyrene-induced lung cancer. Its inhibitory mechanism is to protect protein from damage and inhibit cell proliferation. In the melanoma cell model, piperine can effectively inhibit the gene expression of ATF-2, NF-kappaB and inflammatory cytokines.

2. The antioxidant effect of pure piperine

Based on the DPPH free radical generation system, the ability of piperine to scavenge this kind of free radicals in anhydrous ethanol medium was studied. Its ability to scavenge free radicals can indicate the strength of its antioxidant capacity. Studies have shown that piperine has a certain antioxidant activity, its antioxidant capacity is equivalent to 60.05% of vitamin C, and it exists stably in acidic media.

3. The effect of pure piperine on the central nervous system

At present, studies have proved that pure piperine has sedative, hypnotic, anti-convulsant, skeletal muscle relaxation and anti-depressive effects. The effect of piperine on animal sleep has been studied, and it has been found that piperine can significantly reduce the autonomous activities of mice, and Significantly prolong the sleep time of mice induced by sodium pentobarbital, and can also significantly increase the deep sleep of rabbits. The mechanism may be related to the increase of serotonin content in the brain.

4. The immunomodulatory effect of pure piperine

Gavage mice with piperine for five consecutive days has no obvious toxic effects, and the liver weight increases normally. When studying the effect of piperine on thymocytes, it was found that piperine can inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species and increase the content of glutathione, and inhibit cell apoptosis and thymic-dependent lymphocyte phenotype changes.

5. Pure piperine can reduce the occurrence of inflammation

Piperine can reduce inflammation and pain. Oral piperine at a dose of 50 mg/kg can significantly reduce the occurrence of inflammation. Piperine has an anti-inflammatory effect. Piperine and its congeners can be absorbed through the skin, so it can act on subcutaneous tissues, nerves and blood vessels. In addition, pharmacological studies have shown that piperine can prevent atherosclerosis, lower blood lipids, have anticonvulsant and antiulcer activities, protect the liver, and will not damage the function of the testicles. And whether in the body or outside of the body, piperine can also slow down the peristalsis of the intestines. The effect of pure piperine on the nervous system and sexual organs reflects its anti-convulsant and vasodilator properties.

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